Multiple exposure

Multiple exposure Is just a multiple Exposition the same frame. With multiple exposure, the matrix or film is exposed several times. To put it quite simply - the camera “takes pictures” several times, and the result is only one image, while all the individual photos are combined on one. How it looks - see examples.

Multiple exposure from two shots

Multiple exposure from two shots


When taking a picture with multiple exposure effect the queue of exposures itself (the queue of photographs) is indeed repeated for the same shot on a film cassette. In digital photography, as such, there can be no “clean” multiple exposure, since the original product of each shot is a digital image file. But at the same time, multiple exposure on digital cameras is implemented in software and achieves almost the same effect as on film, and sometimes much better or worse. In digital cameras, multiple exposure is implemented using combining several pictures into onewhile the camera may or may not make some adjustments to the image overlay. In this article, the multi-exposure to digital cameras is more affected, because I simply do not have experience with film.

Multiple exposure in two frames

Multiple exposure in two frames


Exposure with multiple exposure

For film, it was more difficult to calculate the shutter speed for the overall final frame than for each frame separately. If you just take several pictures on film with a normal exposure, for each of them separately, the resulting image for a multiple exposure will be overexposed (overexposed). Therefore, each separate frame on film in a series of frames for multiple exposure had to be made taking into account the exposure of the film by other pictures. Also, on the film it was possible to do ME on the negative or positive. In digital photography, everything is much simpler - you you need the number of shots with normal exposure (for each frame individually), and the camera after the last shot simply combines them into a finished image.


Multiple Exposure (ME) on CZK (Digital Mirror Cameras)

Many modern cameras have this feature, for example, I used the ME on my cameras Nikon D90, D80, D200but on the baby Nikon D40 there are simply no multiple exposures. Cheaper cameras, like mine Nikon D90, D80, have the ability to do multiple exposures in only two or three pictures. More advanced Nikon D200 can take a picture in multi-exposure mode from 10 separate pictures. During the operation of the multiple exposure mode, the camera will notify you with a corresponding indicator on the display or in the viewfinder - on Nikon cameras, this is an icon with overlapping two rectangular images. Multiple exposure can be turned off at any time, if not all of the number of shots was taken in multiple exposure mode, then the camera simply save them individually... If the multiple exposure is taken completely, then the final image will be only one shot. It is rather strange that the camera can save a multiple-exposure photo in RAW format, the question arises, what kind of RAW (raw data from the matrix) is if the camera itself “stitched” one image from the others.

The problem with some CZK cameras is the fact that multiple exposure turns off automatically after a certain time. On mine Nikon D90, D200, D80 multiple exposure turns off after 30 seconds. This drawback will not allow me, for example, to take one shot of the city in the ME in the morning and the second in the evening, to create an interesting effect. In this regard, film cameras and MEs using software (software like Photoshop) are much more efficient. Although, you can cheat and use camera overlay functionTrue, not all cameras can do this. Then, you can shoot anything and anytime without the ME mode, and then overlay frames on top of each other.


Number of frames in multiple exposure

In general, multiple exposure requires at least 2 frames, so it is “multi” - “many”. The maximum is unlimited. But on digital cameras, it's usually worth limiting the number of frames to create a multiple exposure frame. For Nikon, this is usually 3-10 frames. The number of frames is just an advantage over the software method, since each photo in Photoshop will have to be added to the ME frame manually, and the camera will do everything by itself.

Multiple exposure with a large number of frames

Multiple exposure with a large number of frames


Computer multiple exposure

The multiple exposure effect can be very easily implemented in a graphics editor. The method is very simple, you need to make several frames, which need to be combined into one, and then, using layers and their transparency, superimpose on top of each other. Moreover, a graphic editor will allow you to more flexibly control overlay, accents and other parameters in the photo. Another advantage of the multiple exposure method is the ability to create a multiple exposure from any number of shots while preserving the originals. You can even take a ME from old images from which you did not plan to take a ME image. When creating a multiple exposure on the camera, the camera does not retain the original individual frames that were used to create the multiple exposure.

Multiple exposure using Photoshop

Multiple exposure using Photoshop


Why can I use ME?

1. To create interesting art frames, various kinds of entertaining pictures, etc., about this below.

2. To reduce noise and better study of color saturation.

In general, multiple exposure is used to create very unusual, truly highly artistic photographs, photographs with a difficult idea or an unusual picture. To reveal the whole possibility of ME, you need to think over the frame a little, come up with an idea - just merge two frames and get a "candy" will not work. Also, ME can be used to reduce noise and more elaborate colors - this is used by landscape photographers. Personally, I adjust the colors BB, noise level and other important parameters mainly in the RAW converter, and rarely use MЄ for landscapes.


Basic techniques for using multiple exposure

1. Simple multiple exposure of the same subject - can be used for:

a) duplication of the subject, its reproduction in the frame. Any effects when changing the same subject in the frame.

b) creating a motion effect, as well as creating the so-called motion-picture. For example, you can use multiple exposure to create the effect of the motion of the moon, a car, or any moving object in the frame in the frame. The only drawback is the fact that each image can be translucent.

To create artistic underlays or overlays on the main subject in the frame.


Multiple exposure of the same scene with different focus distances (points).

This is a very popular technique. The camera should be fixed in the same place, usually this is done with a tripod. The subject of the shot should also not change. Several shots are taken in the ME mode at the same focal length, aperture, shutter speed and iso - the difference is only in the focus point. The result is a “fabulous” effect.

Cartoon or fairy effect with multiple exposure

Cartoon or fairy effect with multiple exposure

On the forums, professionals call such pictures "cartoons" due to the fact that some unusual cartoonish effect appears. If interested, then similar "fabulous", airy effects can also be obtained if you use monocle for shooting. Personally, I can’t always tell monocle from ME of this kind.

The first shot of 2 in a series of multiple exposures. Front subject focus

The first shot of 2 in a series of multiple exposures. Front subject focus

After the first shot, we translate the focusing distance to a different position, and focus on another subject.

The second shot of 2 in a series of multiple exposures. Rear focus

The second shot of 2 in a series of multiple exposures. Rear focus

Then the camera combines both images into one. A characteristic effect on the face.

Multiple exposure effects with different focus points

Multiple exposure effects with different focus points

This method can be modified in many ways, for example, the first picture (substrate) can be normal focus on the subject, and the second picture (overlay) can be a picture of the most defocused space around the same object, for this it is enough to put the focus ring in the maximum or minimum position.

Multiple exposure with overlays on the substrate of the maximum defocused image

Multiple exposure with overlays on the substrate of the maximum defocused image


Multiple exposure of the same scene with the same focus point, but different focal lengths.

This effect is known simply as “zoom play”. It is also done simply - in the ME mode, several pictures are taken from a tripod of the same subject and at the same focus point and at the same settings, but with different focal lengths. In short, we just turn the zoom ring and simultaneously take pictures in the ME. The result is a snapshot like the one below. A similar effect can be obtained using a long excerpts - for example, an exposure time of 30s, where the frame is exposed for 15 seconds at a wide angle of the lens, and the remaining 15 seconds at the long end of the lens - the main thing is to sharply increase or decrease the zoom. There are also modifications with a zoom, when the emphasis is on its smooth change.

The first shot at multiple exposure with different focal lengths

The first shot at multiple exposure with different focal lengths

Then we just change the focal length of the lens, focus on the sharpness in the right place of the image and take the next frame in a series of ME pictures.

Multiple exposure multiple focal lengths last shot

Multiple exposure multiple focal lengths last shot

In the interval between 50mm and 24mm, another 8 shots were taken in the multiple exposure mode on the camera Nikon D200 and lens Tamron 17-50mm F / 2.8 XR Di II LD Aspherical (IF), after which the camera provided the following result:

Multiple exposure over 10 pictures with a change in focal length

Multiple exposure over 10 pictures with a change in focal length


Multiple exposure with different shutter speeds
For example, you can do a night portrait in this way with a flash. The first shot in a multiple exposure series is taken with a tripod with a short flash shutter speed, after which the person leaves the frame, and the second frame is made with a long shutter speed to properly expose the back scene. With this method, the person himself and the pretty rear lights will be clearly visible. The same effect, in principle, can be obtained in the Slow Sync flash mode.


Personal experience

In general, ME is a creative process, you can think of a lot of other tricks and prims of photographing with ME, I have described the main ones. I almost always use multiple exposure from a tripod... Without a tripod, creating a “fabulous” effect, a zoom effect is very difficult to achieve. With ME in real life I work little, due to the specific genre of photography, therefore the examples in this article should be considered exactly as examples of ME and some of the possibilities of ME. And with the help of ME, you can create frames in the style of “light painting”, for example, like these ones.

Creative process in multiple exposure. The difference in the picture at different apertures

Creative process in multiple exposure. The difference in the picture at different apertures


Conclusion:

Multiple exposure is a great tool in the hands of the photographer, but like any other tool, ME needs to learn how to use it. Some photographers spend their whole lives to become masters in photography made through ME. ME is mainly based on the effect of overlaying images on top of each other, in many cameras there is even a separate function for ME, and if there is no such function, then ME is easily implemented using layers in a graphical editor. Using ME, you can create quite interesting and unusual photos.

Thank you for attention. Arkady Shapoval.

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Comments: 59, on the topic: Multiple exposure

  • Paul

    Ha, I was still engaged in multi-exposure in the 3rd grade. My father taught me to shoot Zenith. And I got to his old CHANGE not yet 6 or 4 or 3 or XNUMX I don’t remember and proudly ran into the pioneer day. Sometimes the truth recalled that in addition to the cocking of the shutter, it was still necessary to rewind the film. But I was very surprised that the film did not end so long. My father laughed at me for a long time when I developed the film on my own and we saw the floor of the film is pristine and the rest had several shots on each frame. A couple of frames turned out really with multiple exposure and almost the correct exposure and when it was printed it was very interesting. Although it was probably the fault that was incorrectly exposed by inability to blame. Father then continued purposefully experiments with multiple exposure.

  • Natalia

    Good afternoon! Help please - on Nikon D5300 I can not turn on Multiple exposure mode and HDR mode - both bars are gray, when highlighted, the camera says “This parameter is not available with the current camera settings or with the current camera settings”, the M mode is set. Please tell me what else is needed to check to get the Multi-exposure and HDR modes working?

    • B. R. P.

      Leave Mode M.

      • Natalia

        I changed all modes - M, A, S, P - in none of them. Multiple exposure, HDR and Interval shooting do not work - these lines in the menu remain gray, inactive. What else can be changed? ...

    • Valery A.

      Go to jeepeg.

      • Natalia

        Valery, the jeep went over, changed all modes - M, A, S, P - in none of them Multiple exposure, HDR and Interval shooting do not work - these lines in the menu remain gray, inactive ... I don't know what else to change ...

        • Valery A.

          What camera?

        • anonym

          Disable bracketing and d-lighting. Autofocus lens

  • Natalia

    Many thanks to everyone for the advice! The issue was resolved by changing the lens - from the 35 mm 1.8 fixture I changed it to Nikon AF Nikkor 35-70mm 1: 2.8D and the Multiple exposure and Interval shooting modes started working! :)

  • Maria

    Good afternoon!
    Did I understand the topic correctly that multiple exposure for adjusting the exposure of complex shots (the object is very light, the background is very dark, the foreground is different from the object (neck-torso)) and a moving object is impossible?
    The problem, in short, is the same as with the bride's dress (probably). Only the bride can be asked to stand still, but the bird cannot. If the background were a little lighter, there would be no problem. Because of the background, the idea arose to expose something like this next time in two ways (
    Are there really no applications where one could copy an equalizer and perform an operation similar to multiple exposure?

    One could, of course, approach the problem “artistically” and kill the background. But the result, nevertheless, is not entirely successful.

    • Michael

      Multiple exposure is not for adjusting exposure, but for gluing two different images. What you want is called exposure bracketing and hdr

      • Maria

        Thank you!
        Then I don’t understand the essence of this feature.
        Her what, the camera makes orders of magnitude cooler than the editors.
        Through FS (and I sometimes do it through AE, since it is more convenient for me to work in it) I will connect two layers of 1000 in different ways, including an exact pixel-by-pixel mask.
        Again, I'm in novice photography, so I'm not sure. that until the end I understand the advantage of doing this in the camera.
        As for DOF, I can only say one hundred percent that the native is better.

    • Roman

      Nit. The whole definition of multiple exposure is given in the first lines of the article. For a film, this is repeated exposure by a different frame; for a number, this is gluing several layers in Photoshop. Exposure settings for each frame can be the same or different, according to the situation.

      What you are talking about is compression of the dynamic range of the image. When you look at your bride in a white dress standing next to her husband in a black suit, the eye usually compresses the image in parts. Darkens the dress and brightens the suit. The camera has a fairly wide range, but cannot do it in fragments.

      There are two options. Offset of black and white dots during development (be careful not to use lights and shadows, only blacks and white to the last). Or shoot several frames with different exposures and display them in a mask.

      On dynamic frames or frames with people, the first method is used, they use the full DD of the camera. You have no time to shoot the bride three times. Yes, there are rarely such and such differences in brightness so that it is impossible to stretch the dress and suit. For the dress, you can still impose the mask on itself in the overlay carefully, the details will appear.

      In landscapes, you can shoot a few frames from a tripod to stretch out the darkest shadows and muffle a bit of the sun, which usually becomes a huge ball like that over the sky. But all this is not related to multiple exposure, or the attitude is very indirect. You expose the same frame, just select the best exposed areas from different frame options.

      Alternatively, you can combine these three methods. Take an overexposed shot where you like the shadows and save the result. Underexposed, where you like the lights - keep the result. And normally exposed - save the result too. Then overlay and underexposed on this normal frame and develop them using a mask. Where necessary - dress, where necessary - suit. It's not entirely fair, but it's convenient to work with.

      • Maria

        Thank you very much, I’ll try to put it into practice.

      • Maria

        Here is just how I programmatically combine such frames in raw format before rendering in jpeg and I did not understand. Sorry for the dullness, Google did not save)

        • Roman

          No way. And photoshop doesn't work with JPEG internally, it works with uncompressed image. Therefore, you can process the frame in Ligthroom or Adobe Camera Raw as you like, open it in Photoshop and save it in PSD format, drive a few words there - all this will happen without loss. And save the finished result in JPEG.

          You can rummage YouTube for "non-destructive editing" - so you can go back to the edits and correct their development if necessary.

        • Roman

          It just doesn't make sense to stack photos in a camera if you can do it all in post-processing. Nikon's trick was made to simulate a film “multiple exposure”, but there is no real sense in it. For example, if you want to combine two frames into one just for artistic purposes - a translucent cat on a translucent background. In Photoshop, you can change the blending mode, process with a mask, reduce / increase transparency - you control the result yourself. Nikon, on the other hand, will simply glue two photos one on top of the other with 50% opacity - it's like Photoshop with one setting. Well, maybe a few - I don't know, I didn't pick it up in detail. I prefer any post-processing to be done with handles, camera for fixation rather than processing.

  • Maria

    In general, the problem is partially solved in the editor, by decreasing the exposure (to show the white object in detail) and increasing the "shadow protection" parameter so that the background does not fall through, but the result looks a little unnatural (in my opinion)

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