What is exposure

Exposure is the time that the camera captures an image. When photographing, light is read using the camera’s matrix or using a film. When we do not take a picture, the film or matrix is ​​closed by the shutter. During shooting, the shutter opens and the film or matrix receives an image from the lens. The amount of time until the shutter is open and there is an exposure.

Excerpt in photography, it is not the same as exposure of wine.

Excerpt in photography, it is not the same as exposure of wine.

No, the article is not about alcohol, the article is about the photographic concept of aging.  Exposure is easy. In phones and digital cameras (soap dishes) there is no mechanical shutter as such. There, the shutter is the on / off matrix. But the principle of operation is fully preserved with the only difference, instead raising the mirror and the shutter shutter - the soap dish matrix is ​​simply updated. Nowadays, there are trendy mirrorless cameras like Sony ILCE-7 They do not have a mirror, but they have a real mechanical shutter, which gives the very nice click of the shutter release.

Half a second slow shutter speed due to insufficient lighting

Half a second slow shutter speed due to insufficient lighting

What is the exposure measured

Exposure is measured in seconds, minutes, hours, days. Usually, even a second is a too long shutter speed, therefore, almost always the shutter speed is indicated in fractions of a second... For example, 1/60, 1/120, 1/500, 1/4000, they often add the word “sec” or “s” or “sec”, as was done in my photos in this article. If the shutter speed is indicated in seconds, then the second sign is written next to the number - 2 ′, 10 ′, or just 3 s, 15 s. The expression '1/20 s' reads as “one twentieth of a second”.

Very short shutter speed so that every drop of water is visible, not a whole stream

Very short shutter speed so that every drop of water is visible, not a whole stream

How to adjust the shutter speed in the camera?

The easiest way is to set the shutter speed in the camera in shutter speed mode or in manual mode. Shutter speed is usually indicated as S (shutter) or Sv (shutter value - shutter value, shutter speed), sometimes you can find the designation Tv (time value - time value). This mode is usually found on the shooting mode dial (more details here) Exposure affects the time that the shutter of the camera is opened. In these modes, just set the shutter speed that you need. How to do this will have to read the instructions.

Very slow shutter speed of 10 seconds when there is very little light

Very slow shutter speed of 10 seconds when there is very little light

Exposure is different

It happens very short (fast) excerpt, for modern digital SLR cameras, the exposure limit is usually 1 / 4000s, in advanced cameras 1 / 8000s, in specialized cameras the shutter speed can be 1 / 40.000. For example, my Nikon D5200 has a minimum shutter speed of 1 / 4000s, and Nikon D7000 - 1 / 8000s, and the old Nikon D1h and a new Nikon 1 J1 - 1 / 16.000s. Short shutter speeds are important when shooting very fast-moving subjects or when shooting on super fast lens in bright light. The difference in shutter speed is twice called stop (step). For example, the difference in shutter speeds of 1 / 20s and 1 / 80s is 2 steps (2 stops), or 4 times. How to achieve super short shutter speed on the camera you can read here.

Short exposure to catch a baby’s movement

Short exposure to catch a baby’s movement

There are also slow shutter speed. Usually, the limit in shutter speed on modern cameras is 30 or 60 seconds. For example, camera Nikon D3100, Canon 700D have the ability to get excerpts only up to 30 seconds. If you need a longer shutter speed, then there is excerpt "by hand", usually denoted as BULB (B)... In this mode, the first press of the shutter button opens the shutter, and the second press closes the shutter. In this way, very slow shutter speeds can be achieved. Typically, slow shutter speeds are taken using the remote control or camera cable from a tripod or stationary surface. The photo below was taken on Nikon D90 and remote control ML-L3 with a shutter speed of 1/13 s. Slow shutter speeds can be used to create unusual visual effects, for example, when shooting moving cars at night, or using light pen.

One Thirteen Second Shutter Speed

One thirteen second long exposure. Fog photography

Flash sync

There is one serious problem for short exposures... When using a camera with a flash, due to the specifics of the shutter operation, the camera cannot synchronize the flash and fast shutter speed. Synchronize means giving a flash of light and opening the shutter at the same time. Therefore, you can check that usually a camera with a built-in flash takes photos only at shutter speeds up to 1/200 s. This excerpt is called X-sync shutter speed. Some amateur cameras can sync with the flash up to 1/500 s - for example, Nikon D40, Nikon D70s.

Attention: no built-in flash, no camera can work with very fast shutter speeds. Another important note - when shooting with flash in really bad lighting conditions, some cameras will automatically set shutter speed to 1 / 60sas in the example below.

The picture was taken using 2 flashes. Automatics took a shutter speed standard in one sixtieth

The picture was taken using 2 flashes. Automatics took a shutter speed standard in one sixtieth

To use the camera with a fast shutter speed and flash, you need to use external flashes. In order for everything to work, you need to camera and flash supported fast sync mode. In quick sync mode, you can shoot with the flash at any shutter speed - from 30 seconds to 1/8000 s. Why do I need a flash with short exposures, you can read in my article 'How to take flash photography during the day'. Below is a snapshot in flash sync mode.

Photo using an SB-900 external flash. Shutter speed is very short, shot in FP mode - fast synchronization

Photo using external flash S. Shutter speed is very short, shot in FP mode - fast synchronization

Exposure is very important when shooting handheld. When shooting with your hands, you always need to remember the shutter speed in order to get a sharp and blurry frame. How best take off you can also read in the section “how to remove from hands“. The shutter speed, aperture and ISO values ​​are interconnected; when you change one of them, one or two of the others will change.

In the comments, you can ask a question on the topic and they will answer you, as well as you can express your opinion or describe your experience. For the selection of photographic equipment, I recommend large catalogs, for example E-Catalog. Many little things for the photo can be found on AliExpress.

Very short shutter speed

Very short shutter speed

conclusions

Exposure is time. In different situations, the camera needs a different time to take a picture. Exposure usually varies in fractions of a second. Shutter speed and aperture are the main parameters in photography. I highly recommend conducting your own experiments and tests.

The material was prepared by Arkady Shapoval. My Youtube channeland Radozhiva's group on Facebook и VK.

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Comments: 220, on the topic: What is excerpt

  • Alexander

    Arkady, please tell me I have a Nikon D3100 with a lens 18-55 VR kit, I'm a beginner! Could you give approximate values ​​for this camera and lens as here in the table http://nikon-d3100.info/stati/27-primernaya-tablica-znacheniy-vyderzhki-i-diafragmy-kotorye-mozhno-ispolzovat-pri-semke-v-ruchnom-rezhime-m.html! Only this table is compiled for fast lenses, and with our capabilities much less! I really want beautiful high-quality photos !!!

    • Arkady Shapoval

      Usually for modern digital cameras it is much easier to use a test shot to determine the settings, because these plates in real conditions are often useless. My practice shows that it is enough to understand the principle in order to quickly learn how to select values ​​in the M mode, and more often it is much easier to use modes A and S.

      • anonym

        Dear Arkady, thank you very much for your site. He taught and teaches a lot now. I would like to note that now there are a lot of people with SLRs such as Nikon 3100 and so on, who want to learn how to photograph on manual Soviet lenses. I have Helios 81N and Granite 11. I’m interested in this question! Could you write an article especially for dummies like me about setting the shutter speed and aperture in Soviet lenses in different conditions. For example, in a room like this, on a street like that. Someone threw it away http://nikon-d3100.info/stati/27-primernaya-tablica-znacheniy-vyderzhki-i-diafragmy-kotorye-mozhno-ispolzovat-pri-semke-v-ruchnom-rezhime-m.html. I do not think that the tables are correct. Another interesting question is whether a device like an exponometer will help me as a novice. Is it worth buying it now? Or maybe there are some tables? I read your articles about manual optics on Nikon, as well as about the histogram

    • anonym

      For so many years I have probably already learned…. If not, then if you like tables in autumn, just count them.

  • Eugene

    Thank you very much!!! Recently I bought myself a D5200 with a whale 18-55, now I ordered a Nikon 70-300 f / 4-5.6G Zoom-Nikkor lens. I'm reading articles. Very instructive !!!

  • Eugene

    Hello! I am a novice photographer, using Nikon D3100 18-55 VR KIT, trying to figure out the modes P, S, A, M. The problem is this: I went to experiment with shutter speed (in the bathtub water from the tap was fotkal), so with a slow shutter speed (1/4000) the screen is black and nothing is visible, what is the reason? How to take a photo with a slow shutter speed, but so that the photo is not black?

    • Arkady Shapoval

      Turn on the flash, details here - https://radojuva.com.ua/2013/06/short-shutter-speed/

      • Eugene

        And how to turn on the flash in this mode?

        • Arkady Shapoval

          Using the dedicated flash forced-up button.

          • Eugene

            What does this button look like and where can I find it?

            • Arkady Shapoval

              With a lightning bolt, I don’t think that the camera is so large that it makes it difficult to inspect the camera body :)

    • nikita

      it depends on the lighting. try to open the aperture larger or iso higher or both

  • Eugene

    Are you on Yandex.Photos? Can I see your work? Here is my page - http://fotki.yandex.ru/users/embrion2014. I wonder your opinion about the latest photos :)

    • Arkady Shapoval

      I'm not there.

  • Eugene

    Why is the photo dark when shooting at a slow shutter speed?

    • Arkady Shapoval

      In a short time, the camera does not receive enough light to capture what you are photographing.

      • Eugene

        That is, at a short shutter speed (without flash), in principle, it makes no sense to photograph?

        • Arkady Shapoval

          It all depends on the lighting.

  • Eugene

    Do not tell me how best to take pictures indoors if you can not use the flash?

    • Arkady Shapoval

      Try auto without flash. Usually this mode has the form of a crossed lightning and in this mode the camera itself will select the necessary shutter speed, ISO and aperture settings as correctly as possible.

      • Eugene

        Are there any other options (they just call tomorrow to shoot the exhibition, and I'm on the premises ... a little bad)?

      • Eugene

        It's just that tomorrow they call me to rent an exhibition in the museum, but I'm not really on the premises .. are there any other options?

        • Arkady Shapoval

          Raise the maximum ISO value, open the maximum aperture. The easiest way is in aperture priority mode.

          • Eugene

            As for the diaphragm, I agree, but if I raise the ISO, then the noise will not be very large? Or just not really raise the value?

            • Arkady Shapoval

              I can not know, because they did not indicate the model of their camera.

  • Eugene

    I have a Nikon D3100

  • Vladimir

    Arkady, please tell me, I have a Nikon d3100 with a lens 18-55 VR kit I'm a beginner. At work, I have to take photographs of fur skins of different colors, from black to white. How to choose the right settings or maybe you need more equipment for shooting as It is important for me to take a photo not only of the appearance but also of the underfill. Thanks.

  • Alexander

    Arkady, please tell me what is wrong, Nikon D90, with the built-in flash raised, the shortest shutter speed that I can set is 1/200. With the flash lowered, the minimum shutter speed is 1/4000. With the built-in flash raised, can I set shutter speed slower than 1/200? Tried it in all modes, but with the built-in flash raised, the minimum shutter speed is 1/200. Please tell me what to do? Change something in the settings? I have already read the instructions. It's still not clear, I can set the minimum shutter speed of 1/4000 only when I start using on-camera flashes? Please explain ... Thank you.

  • Sevladgo

    Thank you so much for your articles !!! I'm sitting with the brand new nicon 60D, the first camera after the phone in my entire conscious life. I mock the ISO, shutter speed and aperture, and marvel at the results. :)))

  • anonym

    how to install the video card on canan powershot pro1) help please!

    • Nicholas

      switch to manual mode

  • Inna S.

    Thank you very much. a lot of your articles became clear

  • Ales

    Thank you for your site, Arkady. I’m learning to photograph only on your articles, so much has been written on other sites either abstruse or unintelligible, not for people :) Now I’m still trying to like if possible)))

  • Yuliya

    Very good and clear article. Thanks!

  • Egor

    Thank you for your site, everything is written in such a way. I have Minya Nikon D3100 Maglib to give him a lens for portraiture

  • Rada

    Thanks to the author for the article. Maybe I don't read everything carefully, I recently started studying my camera and I have a question. Which means "S mode is only available with CPU lenses." I have an old D70S model and a nikkor lens af 50mm f / 1.8d. I found an article about it, but it does not say about the microprocessor. Please explain.

    • Arkady Shapoval

      all autofocus lenses have a microprocessor, it makes no sense to write about this in the overview of each lens.

  • Alain

    I recently bought a canon d60, I practice shooting in manual mode. But so far it’s not very good. I can’t set short exposures, I get dark pictures, even with the aperture open. Increase ISO, noise appears. How to be. What settings to adjust to shoot at short exposures?

    • Alexander

      We are guided by the "solar rule 16": f16 = 1 / ISO
      Aperture: f16
      Exposure: select 1/125 s.
      ISO: Lo2 (125)
      You can also choose other shutter speeds and ISO at f16 aperture. If you need to change the aperture within the same lighting (ISO Lo2), then select the shutter speed according to table 2 of the memo. The memo can be downloaded here https://yadi.sk/i/T7hU3UCShLsyN

  • Nika

    Hello ! I have a Sony A 58 camera…. ? Can't figure out which shutter speed is long and which is short?

    • lysyi71

      User manual for the camera Sony SLT-A58 How to use the camera Sony SLT-A58? After examining this user guide for the Sony SLT-A58, you won’t have such questions. You can see the instructions for the Sony SLT-A58 camera in Russian directly on the site. Or you can download the manual for Sony SLT-A58 directly from the site.http://www.pultofot.ru/pdf/pdf_Sony/Sony_SLT-A58.pdf

  • Sergei

    Hello, I have a Nikon D7100, what is the peculiarity of shutter speed +250 in M ​​mode and thank you for the articles, everything is clearly intelligible and understandable.

    • anonym

      Good day! Read here the question from Yuriy from 23.10.2013 07:39 and the answer to it from Arkady 23.10.2013/08/14 XNUMX:XNUMX.

  • Elena

    Thank you so much for your site !!! Everything is very simple and sensible.

  • Apple

    Please tell me how to enable shutter speed on a canon ixus camera and is it possible at all

  • ana

    Photography lessons for beginners. Lesson 2: Excerpt
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Nr0Yg0zISq8

  • Snejana K

    Hello, I bought a Canon 60 D. Tell me why when I start shooting video, an indicator appears and says “Video recording has been automatically stopped”. How to deal with this?))

    • Lynx

      for example, buy a normal card, as an option.

      • Snejana K

        bought two different, the effect is the same

        • BB

          Check your cards on another device (ideally - on the same one), try to format the memory card using a camera. Take a known working fast card from friends, check with it.

          • Snejana K

            I will try))

        • Lynx

          you need not two different ones, but one normal one - in size with a margin of volume - at least 8-16GB, for video, and class 10.
          Secondly, 60d has a recording time limit, for example.

    • Nick

      Buy a card not lower than grade 10

  • Anastasia

    Good afternoon. I have this problem .. The camera does not respond to my settings and the shutter speed on it is very large. I tried to set it up again, I have Nikon D600, but the camera both took pictures with a high shutter speed and shoots (are there any settings so that you can fix this? Or can I go where? Thanks

    • BB

      What is 'long exposure' in your understanding - very long (30 seconds), or very short (1/4000)?
      How do you determine what a 'long' exposure is worth?
      What mode is selected on the mode dial?

      Yes, and do not forget to read the instructions for the device. Really. Strongly recommend.

  • Nick

    Try shooting in S mode, although it’s strange why the shutter speed doesn’t change ..

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English-version of this article https://radojuva.com/en/2012/02/what-is-shutter-speed/comment-page-3/