What is exposure

Exposure is the time that the camera captures an image. When photographing, light is read using the camera’s matrix or using a film. When we do not take a picture, the film or matrix is ​​closed by the shutter. During shooting, the shutter opens and the film or matrix receives an image from the lens. The amount of time until the shutter is open and there is an exposure.

Excerpt in photography, it is not the same as exposure of wine.

Excerpt in photography, it is not the same as exposure of wine.

No, the article is not about alcohol, the article is about the photographic concept of aging.  Exposure is easy. In phones and digital cameras (soap dishes) there is no mechanical shutter as such. There, the shutter is the on / off matrix. But the principle of operation is fully preserved with the only difference, instead raising the mirror and the shutter shutter - the soap dish matrix is ​​simply updated. Nowadays, there are trendy mirrorless cameras like Sony ILCE-7 They do not have a mirror, but they have a real mechanical shutter, which gives the very nice click of the shutter release.

Half a second slow shutter speed due to insufficient lighting

Half a second slow shutter speed due to insufficient lighting

What is the exposure measured

Exposure is measured in seconds, minutes, hours, days. Usually, even a second is a too long shutter speed, therefore, almost always the shutter speed is indicated in fractions of a second... For example, 1/60, 1/120, 1/500, 1/4000, they often add the word “sec” or “s” or “sec”, as was done in my photos in this article. If the shutter speed is indicated in seconds, then the second sign is written next to the number - 2 ′, 10 ′, or just 3 s, 15 s. The expression '1/20 s' reads as “one twentieth of a second”.

Very short shutter speed so that every drop of water is visible, not a whole stream

Very short shutter speed so that every drop of water is visible, not a whole stream

How to adjust the shutter speed in the camera?

The easiest way is to set the shutter speed in the camera in shutter speed mode or in manual mode. Shutter speed is usually indicated as S (shutter) or Sv (shutter value - shutter value, shutter speed), sometimes you can find the designation Tv (time value - time value). This mode is usually found on the shooting mode dial (more details here) Exposure affects the time that the shutter of the camera is opened. In these modes, just set the shutter speed that you need. How to do this will have to read the instructions.

Very slow shutter speed of 10 seconds when there is very little light

Very slow shutter speed of 10 seconds when there is very little light

Exposure is different

It happens very short (fast) excerpt, for modern digital SLR cameras, the exposure limit is usually 1 / 4000s, in advanced cameras 1 / 8000s, in specialized cameras the shutter speed can be 1 / 40.000. For example, my Nikon D5200 has a minimum shutter speed of 1 / 4000s, and Nikon D7000 - 1 / 8000s, and the old Nikon D1h and a new Nikon 1 J1 - 1 / 16.000s. Short shutter speeds are important when shooting very fast-moving subjects or when shooting on super fast lens in bright light. The difference in shutter speed is twice called stop (step). For example, the difference in shutter speeds of 1 / 20s and 1 / 80s is 2 steps (2 stops), or 4 times. How to achieve super short shutter speed on the camera you can read here.

Short exposure to catch a baby’s movement

Short exposure to catch a baby’s movement

There are also slow shutter speed. Usually, the limit in shutter speed on modern cameras is 30 or 60 seconds. For example, camera Nikon D3100, Canon 700D have the ability to get excerpts only up to 30 seconds. If you need a longer shutter speed, then there is excerpt "by hand", usually denoted as BULB (B)... In this mode, the first press of the shutter button opens the shutter, and the second press closes the shutter. In this way, very slow shutter speeds can be achieved. Typically, slow shutter speeds are taken using the remote control or camera cable from a tripod or stationary surface. The photo below was taken on Nikon D90 and remote control ML-L3 with a shutter speed of 1/13 s. Slow shutter speeds can be used to create unusual visual effects, for example, when shooting moving cars at night, or using light pen.

One Thirteen Second Shutter Speed

One thirteen second long exposure. Fog photography

Flash sync

There is one serious problem for short exposures... When using a camera with a flash, due to the specifics of the shutter operation, the camera cannot synchronize the flash and fast shutter speed. Synchronize means giving a flash of light and opening the shutter at the same time. Therefore, you can check that usually a camera with a built-in flash takes photos only at shutter speeds up to 1/200 s. This excerpt is called X-sync shutter speed. Some amateur cameras can sync with the flash up to 1/500 s - for example, Nikon D40, Nikon D70s.

Attention: no built-in flash, no camera can work with very fast shutter speeds. Another important note - when shooting with flash in really bad lighting conditions, some cameras will automatically set shutter speed to 1 / 60sas in the example below.

The picture was taken using 2 flashes. Automatics took a shutter speed standard in one sixtieth

The picture was taken using 2 flashes. Automatics took a shutter speed standard in one sixtieth

To use the camera with a fast shutter speed and flash, you need to use external flashes. In order for everything to work, you need to camera and flash supported fast sync mode. In quick sync mode, you can shoot with the flash at any shutter speed - from 30 seconds to 1/8000 s. Why do I need a flash with short exposures, you can read in my article 'How to take flash photography during the day'. Below is a snapshot in flash sync mode.

Photo using an SB-900 external flash. Shutter speed is very short, shot in FP mode - fast synchronization

Photo using external flash S. Shutter speed is very short, shot in FP mode - fast synchronization

Exposure is very important when shooting handheld. When shooting with your hands, you always need to remember the shutter speed in order to get a sharp and blurry frame. How best take off you can also read in the section “how to remove from hands“. The shutter speed, aperture and ISO values ​​are interconnected; when you change one of them, one or two of the others will change.

In the comments, you can ask a question on the topic and they will answer you, as well as you can express your opinion or describe your experience. For the selection of photographic equipment, I recommend large catalogs, for example E-Catalog. Many little things for the photo can be found on AliExpress.

Very short shutter speed

Very short shutter speed

conclusions

Exposure is time. In different situations, the camera needs a different time to take a picture. Exposure usually varies in fractions of a second. Shutter speed and aperture are the main parameters in photography. I highly recommend conducting your own experiments and tests.

The material was prepared by Arkady Shapoval. My Youtube channeland Radozhiva's group on Facebook и VK.

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Comments: 220, on the topic: What is excerpt

  • Alex

    Mickey watch is cool

  • Taras

    Arkady, say, what about "the active of the bullet was destroyed by the persha photograph with a quote?"

    • Arkady Shapoval

      Nikon 18-105mm VR 3.5-5.6

  • aaaaaa ... I myself also want such a watch with Mickey Mouse

  • I’ve been looking for such pictures for a long time .. A clock with Mickey Mouse is something

  • Jury

    Good afternoon,
    Question: how to make a shutter speed in MINUTES, for all sorts of water (such as - "milky") effects with ND filters and fully closed apertures, on your Nikon D90? I didn't find it in the instructions - only 30 seconds, and that's it ...
    Thank you.

    • Arkady Shapoval

      In M mode, rotate the shutter speed to 30s, after which BULB mode (by hand) appears there, the first press of the shutter button opens the shutter, the second closes. You can exhibit at least a whole month.

  • Denis

    Hi) Of course I'm sorry .. but can I take the same clear photos on my nikon d3100 18-55 VR kit ????

    • Arkady Shapoval

      Of course. In this article, almost all the photos were taken on whale 18-105.

  • Denis

    Bliiiin (((I have an 18-55 Kit ((Okay)) But the question is: what settings should be on the camera for PROFESSIONAL shooting? For example, in the studio)

    • Arkady Shapoval

      No professional settings - there is an understanding of the necessary settings. In the studio, usually ISO 100, 1 \ 125c, F5.6-F16.0 to taste and needs.

  • Denis

    and aperture: what does it give? And how do I make a blurry background?

  • Sergei

    Good day, can you please tell me how to take a photo on my Fudjifilm SL300 using exposure in the dark and in daylight separately ... I use a camera and a cyan flashlight, how can I make a picture or an inscription for them? (both in daylight and in the dark), please write, I own a camera for only a day, but I want to surprise one lady, thanks in advance

    • Arkady Shapoval

      1. Find mode M (manual mode, usually indicated as M or Manual) and set the shutter speed to a few seconds.
      2. If there is no manual mode (this often happens), then find the S (T, TV) mode and set the shutter speed to a few seconds.
      How to control the shutter speed can be found without any problems in the instructions for your camera. I have written about the flashlight effect here - https://radojuva.com.ua/2011/04/svetopis-kpk-foto/

  • Sergei

    Thank you very much (as I quickly grasp it, I have already taken some photos ...) ... And another question, is it possible to take an exposure longer than 8 seconds on my device? Because I could only do so much: /

  • Arkady Shapoval

    Read about it in the instructions for your device. I dont know.

  • Sergei

    Hello, I have one more question ... I saw a friend's wonderful macro shots (there the spider has eyes and, even, the hairs on the legs are visible) ... My question is: Can I also take macro shots from my Fudjifilm SL300 (factory settings do not have this effect)

    • Arkady Shapoval

      Your device does not allow you to take super-macro shots, it's just a physical limitation of the device, the settings have nothing to do with it

  • Sergei

    Well, there is a function "super-macro shooting (from a distance of no more than 2 cm)" - literally described the function, but either my hands do not grow from there, or the camera settings do not allow

    • Arkady Shapoval

      The function may be, but what result it gives is another question.

  • Kirill

    Good article. In general, all articles and reviews of technology are good.

    • Arkady Shapoval

      Thanks. I try)

  • Eugene

    I have a super sigma530 flash, tell me does it support fast shutter speed?

  • Serik

    Umenia nikon d 200 ... ia stvil biderjku na 1/200 i snimaiu. na 22 torom siemke ona izmenaietsia ia doljen postavit obratno na 1/200 pochemu ona izmenaietsia ???

  • Serik

    Umenia nikon d 200 ... ia stvil viderjku na 1/200 i snimaiu. na 2 torom siemke ona izmenaietsia, ia doljen postavit obratno na 1/200 pochemu ona izmenaietsia ??

  • Elena

    Damn, the most comprehensible article I have ever read. Thanks a lot.

  • Nicholas

    sorry for the stupid question, but how to calculate the shutter speed for example 1/400 sec if there are just numbers 1 ″ or 2 6 etc. on the photo, how to decipher them and what shutter speed is optimal for shooting handheld then the minimum value is nikon d 7000 18-105 vr

  • Akan

    umenia d 80 kak-to ot rodstvennikov dostalsia. i ia vot pro4ital kak mog ponial 4ut '4ut'. viderjku izmeniaesh 4erez krutilku? ia proboval 1/200 stavit no foto stemnela 4to delat '? i eto samaia minemal'naia viderjka?

    • Arkady Shapoval

      Samyiy prostoiy metod upravliat 'vyderzhkoiy - eto isopl'zovat' rezhim S (shutter value), na kamere Nikon D80 mozhno ustanovit 'minimal'nuiu vyderzhku ravnuiu 1 \ 4000, Esli u vas minimal'naia vyderzhka 1, sostavliaet to , u Vas vkliuchena vstroennaia vspyshka.

    • Victor

      Hello

  • Anton

    Arkady, thank you very much for the miracle site! Very nice to read reviews and articles! As a beginner, I recently took a d3100 kit 18-55 vr f / 3.5-5.6g
    But after reading articles, reviews, and so on, I decided to take a fifty-dollar fixed lens from the "must have" series. At first I thought to take Nikonovsky, but prices bite. Then, trusting your site, I took it through Alexander Helios-81n. The lens is super. I did not even expect that such an old lens (as far as I understand now they are no longer produced) could be in such perfect condition. Fix miracle. Thank you and Sasha.

    As a beginner, I have a couple of stupid questions, well, not without it :)
    Get ready, Arkady, now I'll torment you a little with my creative flight of thought;))

    1) tell me, please, I have the following situation. At home, with an ordinary lamp / chandelier (about 200W, shorter light), I take a picture of a cat. My aperture is completely open on Helios-81n = f / 2. Iso 200 to keep the dx matrix quiet. The problem is that when I set the shutter speed to 1/20, 1/30 and shorter, the pictures turn out to be dark ... I don’t want to bully the iso for less noise .. Tell me how to get out of this situation ...

    2) at the expense of shooting macro. As I understand it, fifty dollars do not work very well with macro, but it is clear that they were not made for these purposes .. But still, I wonder how you managed to take pictures of butterflies on flowers so beautifully in the review of this lens? It's just that when I get close to Helios-81n, I can't catch the focus, since it has (and like all lenses) the minimum focal length. You can, of course, shoot a macro in 5: 1, turning the lens upside down and holding it with your hand against the body ... But here it is very difficult to catch sharpness ... Or maybe there is also some secret? When I hold the lens upside down with the other side to the body, it is very difficult to catch focus .. And the area that is in focus is very small in the center ...

    3) another bad question about the diaphragm ... On Helios-81n, I manually expose it clearly. But at the same time, in manual mode, I write that the diaphragm is closed. Well, of course, he does not see the lens, but will it somehow affect the amount of light transmitted to the matrix? It's just that the aperture on the lens is completely open, and on the body it is drawn that it is closed (I hope there is no aperture on the body :))

    Thank you very much for your attention!

    • Arkady Shapoval

      1) the noise is not always as critical as they say about it, there are few exits a) still use the ISO b) to use the flash, the tripod will not work, because longer shutter speeds will lubricate the cat due to the cat being mobile.
      2) all the photos in the Helios-81H review were taken in the normal position of the lens, otherwise I would have written something. It's just that I use a different shooting technique for macro - I set the MDF, and instead of the focusing ring I use the camera movement to get into the depth of field, I described how to achieve the maximum macro with the usual position. https://radojuva.com.ua/2011/11/fotoxitrosti-chast-2/ About the back of the lens - Reversible Macro Adapterwhich costs a penny.
      3) You most likely write about the method of presetting the aperture. When the Helios-81H lens is mounted on the Nikon camera, the aperture is always open, its value is always 2.0 regardless of what value is set on the lens using the aperture setting ring. The aperture closes to the value set by the ring only during shooting. The amount of light when focusing (focusing) is always the maximum for the best fit in sharpness. About this is written in the review Helios-81N.

  • Anton

    And also, Arkady, advise me, please, as a tripod for a beginner.
    I'm thinking between this http://fotomag.com.ua/arsenal-ars-3730-info.html#info and this http://fotomag.com.ua/ARSENAL_ARS-37101-info.html#info models, thanks

    • Arkady Shapoval

      These tripods are rather flimsy, suitable only for the first case. Personally, I also have a weak Velbon CX-888, they are all very similar, they attract only with their low weight and compactness.

  • Anton

    Arkady, so what is better to take, what kind of tripod? Up to UAH 300 Please advise, otherwise I don't even know ... I would have an inexpensive, compact ..

    • Arkady Shapoval

      I repeat, they are almost all the same, take what you like.

  • Anton

    Thank you, Arkady, for your answers, I will experiment) maybe if Alexander has such a ring inexpensively, I will buy it from him to shoot macro ... But what do you think about protective filters for lenses? Do you really need to have them on Helios-81n and 18-55? And then somehow I don't really want to buy for 200-300 UAH for 1 piece ...

  • Sanya

    You are just super!!!!!! ALL ARTICLES ARE PERFECT !!! 1 HOW GOOD WHAT YOU ARE !!!!!!!! RESPECT !!!!!!!))))))

    • Arkady Shapoval

      Well, if you like everything, then do not forget to like (help to the project).

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English-version of this article https://radojuva.com/en/2012/02/what-is-shutter-speed/comment-page-1/