What is exposure

Exposure is the time that the camera captures an image. When photographing, light is read using the camera’s matrix or using a film. When we do not take a picture, the film or matrix is ​​closed by the shutter. During shooting, the shutter opens and the film or matrix receives an image from the lens. The amount of time until the shutter is open and there is an exposure.

Excerpt in photography, it is not the same as exposure of wine.

Excerpt in photography, it is not the same as exposure of wine.

No, the article is not about alcohol, the article is about the photographic concept of aging.  Exposure is easy. In phones and digital cameras (soap dishes) there is no mechanical shutter as such. There, the shutter is the on / off matrix. But the principle of operation is fully preserved with the only difference, instead raising the mirror and the shutter shutter - the soap dish matrix is ​​simply updated. Nowadays, there are trendy mirrorless cameras like Sony ILCE-7 They do not have a mirror, but they have a real mechanical shutter, which gives the very nice click of the shutter release.

Half a second slow shutter speed due to insufficient lighting

Half a second slow shutter speed due to insufficient lighting

What is the exposure measured

Exposure is measured in seconds, minutes, hours, days. Usually, even a second is a too long shutter speed, therefore, almost always the shutter speed is indicated in fractions of a second... For example, 1/60, 1/120, 1/500, 1/4000, they often add the word “sec” or “s” or “sec”, as was done in my photos in this article. If the shutter speed is indicated in seconds, then the second sign is written next to the number - 2 ′, 10 ′, or just 3 s, 15 s. The expression '1/20 s' reads as “one twentieth of a second”.

Very short shutter speed so that every drop of water is visible, not a whole stream

Very short shutter speed so that every drop of water is visible, not a whole stream

How to adjust the shutter speed in the camera?

The easiest way is to set the shutter speed in the camera in shutter speed mode or in manual mode. Shutter speed is usually indicated as S (shutter) or Sv (shutter value - shutter value, shutter speed), sometimes you can find the designation Tv (time value - time value). This mode is usually found on the shooting mode dial (more details here) Exposure affects the time that the shutter of the camera is opened. In these modes, just set the shutter speed that you need. How to do this will have to read the instructions.

Very slow shutter speed of 10 seconds when there is very little light

Very slow shutter speed of 10 seconds when there is very little light

Exposure is different

It happens very short (fast) excerpt, for modern digital SLR cameras, the exposure limit is usually 1 / 4000s, in advanced cameras 1 / 8000s, in specialized cameras the shutter speed can be 1 / 40.000. For example, my Nikon D5200 has a minimum shutter speed of 1 / 4000s, and Nikon D7000 - 1 / 8000s, and the old Nikon D1h and a new Nikon 1 J1 - 1 / 16.000s. Short shutter speeds are important when shooting very fast-moving subjects or when shooting on super fast lens in bright light. The difference in shutter speed is twice called stop (step). For example, the difference in shutter speeds of 1 / 20s and 1 / 80s is 2 steps (2 stops), or 4 times. How to achieve super short shutter speed on the camera you can read here.

Short exposure to catch a baby’s movement

Short exposure to catch a baby’s movement

There are also slow shutter speed. Usually, the limit in shutter speed on modern cameras is 30 or 60 seconds. For example, camera Nikon D3100, Canon 700D have the ability to get excerpts only up to 30 seconds. If you need a longer shutter speed, then there is excerpt "by hand", usually denoted as BULB (B)... In this mode, the first press of the shutter button opens the shutter, and the second press closes the shutter. In this way, very slow shutter speeds can be achieved. Typically, slow shutter speeds are taken using the remote control or camera cable from a tripod or stationary surface. The photo below was taken on Nikon D90 and remote control ML-L3 with a shutter speed of 1/13 s. Slow shutter speeds can be used to create unusual visual effects, for example, when shooting moving cars at night, or using light pen.

One Thirteen Second Shutter Speed

One thirteen second long exposure. Fog photography

Flash sync

There is one serious problem for short exposures... When using a camera with a flash, due to the specifics of the shutter operation, the camera cannot synchronize the flash and fast shutter speed. Synchronize means giving a flash of light and opening the shutter at the same time. Therefore, you can check that usually a camera with a built-in flash takes photos only at shutter speeds up to 1/200 s. This excerpt is called X-sync shutter speed. Some amateur cameras can sync with the flash up to 1/500 s - for example, Nikon D40, Nikon D70s.

Attention: no built-in flash, no camera can work with very fast shutter speeds. Another important note - when shooting with flash in really bad lighting conditions, some cameras will automatically set shutter speed to 1 / 60sas in the example below.

The picture was taken using 2 flashes. Automatics took a shutter speed standard in one sixtieth

The picture was taken using 2 flashes. Automatics took a shutter speed standard in one sixtieth

To use the camera with a fast shutter speed and flash, you need to use external flashes. In order for everything to work, you need to camera and flash supported fast sync mode. In quick sync mode, you can shoot with the flash at any shutter speed - from 30 seconds to 1/8000 s. Why do I need a flash with short exposures, you can read in my article 'How to take flash photography during the day'. Below is a snapshot in flash sync mode.

Photo using an SB-900 external flash. Shutter speed is very short, shot in FP mode - fast synchronization

Photo using external flash S. Shutter speed is very short, shot in FP mode - fast synchronization

Exposure is very important when shooting handheld. When shooting with your hands, you always need to remember the shutter speed in order to get a sharp and blurry frame. How best take off you can also read in the section “how to remove from hands“. The shutter speed, aperture and ISO values ​​are interconnected; when you change one of them, one or two of the others will change.

In the comments, you can ask a question on the topic and they will answer you, as well as you can express your opinion or describe your experience. For the selection of photographic equipment, I recommend large catalogs, for example E-Catalog. Many little things for the photo can be found on AliExpress.

Very short shutter speed

Very short shutter speed

conclusions

Exposure is time. In different situations, the camera needs a different time to take a picture. Exposure usually varies in fractions of a second. Shutter speed and aperture are the main parameters in photography. I highly recommend conducting your own experiments and tests.

The material was prepared by Arkady Shapoval. My Youtube channeland Radozhiva's group on Facebook и VK.

Add a comment:

 

 

Comments: 220, on the topic: What is excerpt

  • Tatyana

    People need help from those who know))) I am an amateur photographer ... kapper nikon d7000 lens 16-85 ... there was a problem. in the M mode, in which I usually shoot the shutter speed, I set it to 100, the next shot is already at a shutter speed of 200, then the value jumps either higher or lower, some kind of whistle (((and in other modes. the lens recently repair, restored the stabilizer ... I thought that after the repair this problem will go away, but no ... what could it be, the camera is buggy or is it a lens?

    • Michael

      Turn off the marketing

      • Tatyana

        but I don't seem to include it,))) but as an option I'll look ... thanks! what else would anyone advise)))

  • Eugene

    I ask for help! nikond 750 in “S” mode can't set shutter speed faster than 1/250 which setting should I change? S mode video piece https://yadi.sk/i/xhNIj9dvWS7Gwg

    • Vitaly N

      I suppose to start with the basics of photo-making. ISO increase.

    • Arkady Shapoval

      ahaha, I have not seen this yet :) turn the selector in the wrong direction. After 30 seconds, X 1/250 turns on - flash sync speed for flash work. just twist the other way 30-25-20 and up to 1/4000 or whatever you need.

      • Vitaly N

        Or the flash is on and the shutter speed is set to 1/250

      • Vitaly N

        I checked it on my own - along the way, the flash was just raised. You can twist in any direction with equal success.

  • Ulyana

    Hello, I have such a problem. I can’t remove the flash in modes A, S, M. I tried to press the lightning and twist. In these modes there is no crossed lightning. And when I close the flash, the camera writes (too dark). And another question about mode S. In theory, when you turn on this mode and build the aperture, the shutter speed should automatically change and it just stands still. Why is this happening?

    • Arkady Shapoval

      1. What writes “too” dark - this is just a recommendation to turn on the flash.
      2. In S mode, set the shutter speed, not the aperture.
      3. It would be nice to know what kind of apparatus, then there would be more chances to tell :)

Add a comment

Copyright © Radojuva.com. Blog author - Photographer in Kiev Arkady Shapoval. 2009-2020

English-version of this article https://radojuva.com/en/2012/02/what-is-shutter-speed/